their respective communist governments. After Stalingrad, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945. Ulam, Expansion and coexistence: the history of Soviet foreign policy, 191773 (1974) Harold Henry Fisher (1955). 220 During this period, the number of churches fell from 20,000 to 10,0 to 1965, and the number of synagogues dropped from 500. 173 The street network and automotive industry 174 remained underdeveloped, 175 and dirt roads were common outside major cities. During the Soviet era, a great number of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians migrated to other Soviet republics and many of them settled there. For the first time since the 1920s, it refused to rubber stamp proposals from the party and Council of Ministers.